Mélanges originated from sedimentary processes (sedimentary mélanges) and olistostromes are frequently present in mountain chains worldwide. They are excellent fossil examples of mass-transport complexes (MTC), often cropping out in well-preserved and laterally continuous exposures. In this article we will show the results of the integrated study of fossil MTCs, including sedimentary mélanges/olistostromes, with a focus on the Apennines of Italy. Fossil MTCs, especially the basin-wide ones, are composite and multi-event units involving the entire spectra of mass-transport processes. The down-slope motion of these bodies is enabled by the relative movement of discrete masses, with progressive stratal disruption of rocks/sediment involved and flow transformation. Three kinds of MTC are here distinguished, in which the movements are enabled by 1) shear-dominated viscous flows within a muddy matrix, 2) mud-silt-sandy matrix sustained by fluid overpressure, 3) concentrated shear zones/surfaces with advection of grains and fluid (overpressured basal carpets). These MTC types may represent end-members of a continuum of products and correspond to different kinematics of transport and emplacement and to different relationship with the substratum. These observations should result in a better knowledge of mass-transport processes and bodies, in relation with the basin floor geometry.

Chapter 52. Sedimentary Mélanges and Fossil Mass-Transport Complexes: A Key for Better Understanding Submarine Mass Movements?

Camerlenghi, Angelo
2012-01-01

Abstract

Mélanges originated from sedimentary processes (sedimentary mélanges) and olistostromes are frequently present in mountain chains worldwide. They are excellent fossil examples of mass-transport complexes (MTC), often cropping out in well-preserved and laterally continuous exposures. In this article we will show the results of the integrated study of fossil MTCs, including sedimentary mélanges/olistostromes, with a focus on the Apennines of Italy. Fossil MTCs, especially the basin-wide ones, are composite and multi-event units involving the entire spectra of mass-transport processes. The down-slope motion of these bodies is enabled by the relative movement of discrete masses, with progressive stratal disruption of rocks/sediment involved and flow transformation. Three kinds of MTC are here distinguished, in which the movements are enabled by 1) shear-dominated viscous flows within a muddy matrix, 2) mud-silt-sandy matrix sustained by fluid overpressure, 3) concentrated shear zones/surfaces with advection of grains and fluid (overpressured basal carpets). These MTC types may represent end-members of a continuum of products and correspond to different kinematics of transport and emplacement and to different relationship with the substratum. These observations should result in a better knowledge of mass-transport processes and bodies, in relation with the basin floor geometry.
9789400721616
Mass-transport deposits and processes; Slumping and debris flows; Submarine landslides; Olistostromes; Sedimentary mélanges; Alps and Apennines
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14083/3692
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