Stromboli volcano (Southern Italy) is one of the most monitored volcano in the world with a surveillance network that includes a permanently sited ground-based SAR interferometer (GBInSAR). This work is the review of the GBInSAR data gained from the last decade of monitoring activity. The analysis of the entire dataset of GBInSAR measurements allowed the assessment of the deformation field of the northern part of the summit crater area and the Sciara del Fuoco depression. In detail, the main displacements recognized can be related to different factors: 1) the inflation/deflation respectively immediately before and after each new effusive event; 2) the bulging of localized sectors of the volcano involved in the vent opening; 3) the gravitational sliding of the Sciara del Fuoco infill; 4) the movement of lava flows. Accelerations in this sector are related to sheet intrusions, while the possibility of vent opening, associated with small sliding, or catastrophic flank failure are related to highly overpressurized sheets, able to produce high displacement rate in the Sciara del Fuoco. In the summit crater area, the increases in the displacement rate are related to the pressurization of the shallow conduit system, as the consequence of the variation in the magma level (magmastatic pressure) or to the lateral magma migration (lateral conduit expansion or dike intrusion) in response to the increase of the overpressure component. Fluctuations in the displacement rate in the summit crater area can be related to the magma overturning within the conduit, with the increases in displacement rate during the upwelling of less dense magma, while displacement rate decreases as the degassed magma column is pushed out from the conduit (lava flows or overflows). Instead, the decrease in the displacement rate without coeval lava outpouring could be related to the sink of the degassed magma due to density contrast between the gas-poor and the gas-charged magmas. Using the displacement rate in the summit crater area as a proxy for the variation in the pressure condition in conduit (both magmastatic and overpressure components), thresholds for the crises characterized by the occurrence of overflows (eventually associated with major explosions) and flank effusions (eventually associated with paroxysmal explosions) are identified. Small conduit overpressure will produce overflows (sometimes associated with crater-rim collapses), while large magma overpressure will laterally expand the conduit forming NE-SW striking sheets, feeding eruptive vents at the base of the summit crater area and within the Sciara del Fuoco, generating conditions of instability that can evolve into catastrophic collapse of the instable flank.

Review of ten years of volcano deformations recorded by the ground-based InSAR monitoring system at Stromboli volcano: a tool to mitigate volcano flank dynamics and intense volcanic activity

DI TRAGLIA, FEDERICO;CASAGLI, NICOLA
2014

Abstract

Stromboli volcano (Southern Italy) is one of the most monitored volcano in the world with a surveillance network that includes a permanently sited ground-based SAR interferometer (GBInSAR). This work is the review of the GBInSAR data gained from the last decade of monitoring activity. The analysis of the entire dataset of GBInSAR measurements allowed the assessment of the deformation field of the northern part of the summit crater area and the Sciara del Fuoco depression. In detail, the main displacements recognized can be related to different factors: 1) the inflation/deflation respectively immediately before and after each new effusive event; 2) the bulging of localized sectors of the volcano involved in the vent opening; 3) the gravitational sliding of the Sciara del Fuoco infill; 4) the movement of lava flows. Accelerations in this sector are related to sheet intrusions, while the possibility of vent opening, associated with small sliding, or catastrophic flank failure are related to highly overpressurized sheets, able to produce high displacement rate in the Sciara del Fuoco. In the summit crater area, the increases in the displacement rate are related to the pressurization of the shallow conduit system, as the consequence of the variation in the magma level (magmastatic pressure) or to the lateral magma migration (lateral conduit expansion or dike intrusion) in response to the increase of the overpressure component. Fluctuations in the displacement rate in the summit crater area can be related to the magma overturning within the conduit, with the increases in displacement rate during the upwelling of less dense magma, while displacement rate decreases as the degassed magma column is pushed out from the conduit (lava flows or overflows). Instead, the decrease in the displacement rate without coeval lava outpouring could be related to the sink of the degassed magma due to density contrast between the gas-poor and the gas-charged magmas. Using the displacement rate in the summit crater area as a proxy for the variation in the pressure condition in conduit (both magmastatic and overpressure components), thresholds for the crises characterized by the occurrence of overflows (eventually associated with major explosions) and flank effusions (eventually associated with paroxysmal explosions) are identified. Small conduit overpressure will produce overflows (sometimes associated with crater-rim collapses), while large magma overpressure will laterally expand the conduit forming NE-SW striking sheets, feeding eruptive vents at the base of the summit crater area and within the Sciara del Fuoco, generating conditions of instability that can evolve into catastrophic collapse of the instable flank.
Volcano deformation
GBInSAR
Volcano monitoring
Stromboli volcano
Flank volcano dynamics
Tsunamogenic landslide
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14083/14098
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